Wednesday, December 27, 2017

The Art of Prayer

At the end of the Great Jubilee in A.D. 2000, Pope John Paul II issued the apostolic letter NOVO MILLENNIO INEUNTE "so that the Church may shine ever more brightly in the variety of her gifts and in her unity as she journeys on."   In general, the letter encourages "each local Church to assess its fervour and find fresh enthusiasm for its spiritual and pastoral responsibilities."  In particular, it urges Christian communities to learn the art of prayer.

In the letter, the pope first mentions the people who have been recognized as living holy lives and then challenges every Christian:

The time has come to re-propose wholeheartedly to everyone this high standard of ordinary Christian living: the whole life of the Christian community and of Christian families must lead in this direction. It is also clear however that the paths to holiness are personal and call for a genuine "training in holiness", adapted to people's needs. ... This training in holiness calls for a Christian life distinguished above all in the art of prayer.
He calls on Christian communities (such as parishes) to pray and to act:

our Christian communities must become genuine "schools" of prayer, where the meeting with Christ is expressed not just in imploring help but also in thanksgiving, praise, adoration, contemplation, listening and ardent devotion, until the heart truly "falls in love". Intense prayer, yes, but it does not distract us from our commitment to history: by opening our heart to the love of God it also opens it to the love of our brothers and sisters, and makes us capable of shaping history according to God's plan.

Sunday, November 26, 2017

The Christian Way

The statement by Evangelicals and Catholics Together on The Christian Way was published in the December 2017 issue of First Things.  Some highlights:
Being a Christian requires more than intellectual or moral agreement with Christian teachings. Christ asks for our love and loyalty. Following him requires conversion, which leads to membership in the Church, the Body of Christ. To be a Christian means being a citizen of a city that has a rich inheritance and glorious future. 
Even now, the Christian way bears witness to the fullness of life promised in Christ. Caring for the sick and the poor, friendship for the prisoner and the outcast, comforting the sorrowful and educating those who need instruction: These are works of mercy that embody the love of God in Christ. This active witness is crowned by ongoing prayer for the needs of fellow Christians, as well as for the world. 
The Christian way seeks to be faithful to that which has been given by God, which turns it outward rather than inward. It serves God’s love for the world. Evangelization seeks to bring people to Christ. But this is not so that Christianity might grow more powerful and “win.” Instead, the Christian mission proclaims the good news that God, in his mercy, offers deliverance to humanity from the power of sin and death, opening up a new future in which the fullness of life reigns. 

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Symbols and Revelation

In Models of Revelation, Avery Cardinal Dulles presented five models (descriptions) of revelation that seem to be in conflict: (1) propositions about God (including the statements in the Bible), (2) God’s deeds and the prophets' insights about these events, which are recorded in the Bible, (3) an inner and immediate experience of communion with God, (4) a dialectical presence in which God speaks to a believer who better understands his true powerlessness, and (5) a new perspective or higher level of consciousness that leads to activity to transform the world. 

Dulles gave a definition inspired by all five models: 

Revelation is God’s free action whereby he communicates saving truth to created minds, especially through Jesus Christ as accepted by the apostolic Church and attested by the Bible and by the continuing community of believers.
Dulles then proposed an approach based on the power of symbols, which are divine signs that suggest more meanings than they clearly state and have properties in common with revelation: they are engaging, transforming, influential, and insightful.

I would synthesize his ideas as follows: First, in the past, God revealed Himself in deeds and events and through the life, death, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God.  God’s people have perceived (and continue to perceive) these events as symbols, and the propositions (doctrines) of the Church (in the Bible and Tradition) state truths that interpret and explain these symbols (in a limited way), but the symbols also express things that propositions cannot.  Second, a person may have an inner experience of God, but this must be through symbols that provide a way for the person to articulate the experience.  Third, through God's grace, with or without an inner experience, any Christian, by knowing about God’s deeds and agreeing to the Church’s doctrines, can hear God speaking to him (through these symbols) and better understand who God is.  Moreover, “having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope to which he has called you, what are the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power in us who believe,” (Ephesians 1:18-19) the Christian will have a new perspective on his vocation and the meaning of his life, which will yield a higher consciousness that results in serving God and transforming the world by loving his neighbor.

References cited:  
Avery Cardinal Dulles, Models of Revelation, Orbis Books, 1992.

Thomas G. Guarino, “Why Avery Dulles Matters,” First Things, May 2009.